The Oldest Living Thing: The oldest living thing on earth is either an Irish Oak or a Bristlecone pine. If we assume a growth rate of one tree ring per year, then the oldest trees are between 4, and 4, years old. Also, with regard to fossil tree rings, the author has been unable to find any documented instances of fossil trees having more than about rings. This is significant since we are told that God literally made the Earth, and all that is in it, only about years before the Noachian Flood described in the Book of Genesis. In a Bristlecone Pine tree was discovered that has just over 5, tree rings.
4.4 billion-year-old crystal is oldest piece of Earth
Leibnitz reworked Descartes’s cosmogony. Protogea was published much later in An essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. Woodward came down fairly strongly for the view that the flood was an act of God that could not be accounted for by normal physical processes. He also postulated hydrological sorting to account for the ordering of fossils. Whiston added comets to Burnet’s cosmogony as the source of the waters of the flood.
G. Dalrymple has done a wonderful job in writing such a technical work on the history and direct data for the current estimate of the age of the Earth being Billion years old and the Universe being 7 – .
Submitted as coursework for PH , Stanford University, Winter Introduction Among the many fission product nuclides, cesium deserves attention because it possesses a unique combination of physical properties and historical notoriety. It is readily produced in large quantities during fission, has an intermediate half-life, decays by high-energy pathways, and is chemically reactive and highly soluble.
These physical properties have made cesium a dangerous legacy of major nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl, but it has also caused relatively small incidents as well. The Dangers of Cesium Cesium is among the most common heavy fission products. Its half-life of about 30 years is long enough that objects and regions contaminated by cesium remain dangerous to humans for a generation or more, but it is short enough to ensure that even relatively small quantities of cesium release dangerous doses of radiation its specific radioactivity is 3.
Cesium undergoes high-energy beta decay, primarily to an excited nuclear isomer of Barium , which in turn undergoes gamma decay with a half-life of about seconds. Its half-life is too short for it to persist from natural fission sources, and on earth it is a synthetic isotope only. Should further nuclear accidents be avoided, the dangers of cesium will eventually cease. During the Chernobyl explosion, about 27 kg of cesium were expelled into the atmosphere.
Particles of the reactor fuel settled densely within about km or their release, and within a 30 km radius of the facility, cesium radioactivity due to ground deposition of fallout particles was over 1.
#799: “Weak Female Lead”
Roman poet Lucretius, intellectual heir to the Greek atomists, believed its formation must have been relatively recent, given that there were no records going back beyond the Trojan War. The Talmudic rabbis, Martin Luther and others used the biblical account to extrapolate back from known history and came up with rather similar estimates for when the earth came into being.
Within decades observation began overtaking such thinking.
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See Article History Geologic history of Earth, evolution of the continents , oceans , atmosphere , and biosphere. By studying this rock record from the very beginning, it is thus possible to trace their development and the resultant changes through time. The pregeologic period From the point at which the planet first began to form, the history of Earth spans approximately 4. The oldest known rocks—the faux amphibolites of the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt in Quebec , Canada—however, have an isotopic age of 4.
There is in effect a stretch of approximately million years for which no geologic record for rocks exists, and the evolution of this pregeologic period of time is, not surprisingly, the subject of much speculation. To understand this little-known period, the following factors have to be considered: It is widely accepted by both geologists and astronomers that Earth is roughly 4. This age has been obtained from the isotopic analysis of many meteorites as well as of soil and rock samples from the Moon by such dating methods as rubidium—strontium and uranium—lead.
It is taken to be the time when these bodies formed and, by inference , the time at which a significant part of the solar system developed. Earth and the meteorites thus have had similar lead isotope histories, and so it is concluded that over a period of about 30 million years they condensed or accreted as solid bodies from a primeval cloud of interstellar gas and dust—the so-called solar nebula from which the entire solar system is thought to have formed—at about the same time.
Particles in the solar nebula condensed to form solid grains, and with increasing electrostatic and gravitational influences they eventually clumped together into fragments or chunks of rock.
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Hank Campbell In the latest episode of Cosmos we got some history regarding how science has tried to converge on the age of the Earth. With that, we also got another jab at religion. Why use yet another religious contrast from hundreds of years ago to show the awesome power of science now? Is there so little actual imagination in their Ship Of The Imagination?
How radiometric dating works in general: Radioactive elements decay gradually into other elements. The original element is called the parent, and the result of the decay process is .
Reference to a case where the given method did not work This is perhaps the most common objection of all. Creationists point to instances where a given method produced a result that is clearly wrong, and then argue that therefore all such dates may be ignored. Such an argument fails on two counts: First, an instance where a method fails to work does not imply that it does not ever work. The question is not whether there are “undatable” objects, but rather whether or not all objects cannot be dated by a given method.
The fact that one wristwatch has failed to keep time properly cannot be used as a justification for discarding all watches. How many creationists would see the same time on five different clocks and then feel free to ignore it? Yet, when five radiometric dating methods agree on the age of one of the Earth’s oldest rock formations Dalrymple , p. The claim that the methods produce bad results essentially at random does not explain why these “bad results” are so consistently in line with mainstream science.
Claims that the assumptions of a method may be violated Certain requirements are involved with all radiometric dating methods. These generally include constancy of decay rate and lack of contamination gain or loss of parent or daughter isotope.
The Age of the Earth
This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.
A full discussion of the topic must therefore include the current scientific challenge to the OE concept. This challenge is mainly headed by Creationism which teaches a young-earth YE theory.
The generally accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about billion years (plus or minus about 1%). This value is derived from several.
Relative dating Studies of strata , the layering of rocks and earth, gave naturalists an appreciation that Earth may have been through many changes during its existence. These layers often contained fossilized remains of unknown creatures, leading some to interpret a progression of organisms from layer to layer. Lomonosov’s ideas were mostly speculative. In the Comte du Buffon tried to obtain a value for the age of Earth using an experiment: He created a small globe that resembled Earth in composition and then measured its rate of cooling.
This led him to estimate that Earth was about 75, years old. Other naturalists used these hypotheses to construct a history of Earth , though their timelines were inexact as they did not know how long it took to lay down stratigraphic layers. This was a challenge to the traditional view, which saw the history of Earth as static,[ citation needed ] with changes brought about by intermittent catastrophes.
Changing Views of the History of the Earth
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al,
Many authors choose to present the history of a complex subject by breaking it up into major threads and following the history of each thread separately.
Decay routes[ edit ] The above uranium to lead decay routes occur via a series of alpha and beta decays, in which U with daughter nuclides undergo total eight alpha and six beta decays whereas U with daughters only experience seven alpha and four beta decays. The term U—Pb dating normally implies the coupled use of both decay schemes in the ‘concordia diagram’ see below. However, use of a single decay scheme usually U to Pb leads to the U—Pb isochron dating method, analogous to the rubidium—strontium dating method.
Finally, ages can also be determined from the U—Pb system by analysis of Pb isotope ratios alone. This is termed the lead—lead dating method. Clair Cameron Patterson , an American geochemist who pioneered studies of uranium—lead radiometric dating methods, is famous for having used it to obtain one of the earliest estimates of the age of the Earth. Mineralogy[ edit ] Although zircon ZrSiO4 is most commonly used, other minerals such as monazite see: Where crystals such as zircon with uranium and thorium inclusions do not occur, a better, more inclusive, model of the data must be applied.
These types of minerals often produce lower precision ages than igneous and metamorphic minerals traditionally used for age dating, but are more common in the geologic record. Interaction between mineralogy and radioactive breakdown[ edit ] During the alpha decay steps, the zircon crystal experiences radiation damage, associated with each alpha decay.